The International Whaling Commission has protected bowhead whales from commercial whaling since its inception in 1946; all range states except Canada are members of the IWC. Limited aboriginal subsistence whaling is allowed by the IWC on bowhead whales from the BCB stock on the basis of scientific advice (see above). Aboriginal hunting in Canada is co-managed by the national government and regional bodies created under land-claim agreements. This species has been included in CITES Appendix I since 1975; Canada had a reservation against this listing until 1978. The species is listed in CMS Appendix I.
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