The species is threatened by wetland habitat degradation and loss from pollution (e.g. petroleum9 and pesticide pollution22), wetland drainage, peat-extraction, changing wetland management practices (e.g. decreased grazing and mowing in meadows leading to scrub over-growth)and the burning and mowing of reedbeds9. The species also suffers mortality as a result of lead shot ingestion (e.g. in Spain21 and France24) and poisoning from white phosphorous ingestion (from firearms) in Alaska18. It is also susceptible to duck virus enteritis (DVE)10, avian influenza12 and avian botulism11 so may be threatened by future outbreaks of these diseases (although it may be able to withstand sporadic losses due to its high reproductive potential)11. The species is predated by American mink Neovison vison in Europe25. Utilisation The species is hunted throughout the world2 mainly for sport13, 14, 15, 17, but also for commercial use (food)16. The eggs of this species were (and possibly still are) harvested in Iceland23.
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