Communication and Perception
Dominant male Galapagos sea lions patrol their territory, warding off intruders, often with a bark. Dominant bulls also touch the muzzle of females of interest (Orr, 1967). Mother and pups recognize each other by their unique scent and vocal calls (Halpin et al., 2009).
Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
Perception Channels: visual