During breeding season males claim territories. A male consistently occupies a territory until factors change and cause him to be displaced. Typical occupation time is approximately two weeks; few Z. californianus males remain at their site for longer. While guarding their territory, males remain present and do not leave even in pursuit of food. As external factors change, males replace other males on the territory. Replacement occurs throughout the entire breeding season. Males are known to attack if others invade their territory. California sea lions tend to breed on islands or remote beaches. Zalophus californianus exhibit moderate to extreme polygyny and tend to live in colonies of a few males and many females. Female Z. californianus exhibit mate choice, by "respond[ing] differently to the attempts of various males"(Riedman, 1990).
Mating System: polygynous
The peak breeding season occurs in early July. The total gestation period is about 11 months (Riedman, 1990). Most births occur from mid-May to mid-June (Scheffer, 1958) with the majority of pups born in mid-June. The time between birth and estrus is about 28 days. California sea lions reach sexual maturity between four and five years (Riedman, 1990).
Breeding season: mating in July, births in mid-May to mid-June
Average number of offspring: 1.
Average gestation period: 11 months.
Range weaning age: 6 to 12 months.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 4-5 years.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 4-5 years.
Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal )
Average birth mass: 7000 g.
Average gestation period: 259 days.
Average number of offspring: 1.2.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male: 1826 days.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 1095 days.
The lactation period in Z. californianus ranges from six months to a year. There are many possible reasons for the variation in lactation periods including availability of food resources, the mother's age and health, the sex of the pup and the birth of a new pup. Zalophus californianus provide more lengthy maternal care for female offspring then for male offspring, yet during lactation both males and females have equal access and receive equal resources.
Parental Investment: female parental care
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