Spirocerca lupi, the esophageal worm, is a mammalian parasite found in the tropic warm temperate areas and throughout the United States. Their distribution is sporadic, as they have also been found in northern regions of the Soviet Union and Manchuria.
Biogeographic Regions: nearctic ; palearctic ; oriental
- Roberts, L., J. Janovy. 2000. Foundations of Parasitology. Boston: McGraw Hill.
- Frisby, H. 2001. Spirocera Lupi. Foster and Smtih Pet Education, 81: 221-222.