Magellanic penguins live for an average of 25 to 30 years in the wild. Juvenile penguins suffer the highest mortality rate during their first pelagic migration, but annual survival slowly increases as they age. Causes of mortality for both juveniles and adults include predation, climatic variation, discarded human garbage, oil spills, and commercial fishing.
Status: wild: 25 to 30 years.
- Wildlife Conservation Society. 2011. "Magellanic Penguin" (On-line). Wildlife Conservation Society: Bronx Zoo. Accessed February 24, 2011 at http://www.bronxzoo.com/animals-and-exhibits/animals/birds/magellanic-penguin.aspx.
- Boersma, P., D. Stokes. 1995. The penguins (Bird families of the world): Conservation: threats to penguin populations. New York: Oxford University Press.
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