Speothos venaticus exhibit low density populations. While protected in many countries, their populations are currently diminishing due to habitat destruction. The IUCN Red List rates the species as "Vulnerable" to extinction, because it is becoming divided up into small populations that are separated by unsuitable habitat.
Bush dogs are listed in Appendix I of of the CITES, so international trade in the animals or their products is supposed to be highly regulated.
There are several captive breeding programs at zoos around the world.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: appendix i
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened
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