Some of the smaller species, such as Scomber japonicus, are food for a large number of predators, from fishes and porpoises to seals and seabirds. Mackerels are fed upon by large tunas, other large fishes, and sharks. Tunas, even large ones, must watch out for the temperate and warm temperate swordfish Xiphias gladius and other tropical sailfishes, spearfishes and marlins (Istiophorus, Tetrapturus, Makaira). Humans are a predator shared by all the scombrids.
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