Scaphopods are gonochoristic or dioecious. Eggs are released singly through the right nephridium. Sperm is also released through the nephridium. Eggs are planktonic and fertilization is external.
Key Reproductive Features: gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (External ); oviparous
There is no parental investment after release of gametes.
Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning)
- Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
- Barnes, R. 1987. Invertebrate Zoology. Orlando, Florida: Dryden Press.
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