Proteus anguinus is currently listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. The main cause for reduction in olm populations is habitat destruction. This may include water pollution and changes to the land above its underground habitat, such as economic development and tourism. There is also illegal capture of olms for the pet industry. Currently, Proteus anguinus mostly resides in national parks and land protected by the governments of Italy, Croatia, and Slovenia. Variant black olms are limited to a small area in Slovenia and are in need of protection.
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: vulnerable