Leopard cats are predators. They prey upon a number of small vertebrate species, such as rodents, possibly helping control pest populations. On islands, they are often the only primarily carnivorous species present. They are prey for larger carnivores and may be carriers of Feline Immunodeficiency virus, which can be transmitted to domestic cats. Parasites specific to this species have not been documented.
- Hayama, S., H. Yamamoto, S. Nakanishi, T. Hiyama, A. Murayama. 2010. Risk Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Tsushima Leopard Cats (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus) and Domestic cats using a Geographic Information System. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 72: 1113-1118.