The family Plesiobatidae, or deepwater stingrays, contains only one species, formerly included in the genus Urotrygon but placed in its own family in 1990. Deepwater stingrays are found on soft bottoms at depths between 44 m and 680 m. They are large, dark rays with a rounded disc that ends in an angular pointed snout. They are viviparous and likely share reproductive characteristics with Urolophidae (see Development and Reproduction). They feed on a variety of fishes and invertebrates (see Food Habits). They are not of interest to fisheries, and despite their venomous defensive sting, do not pose any threat to humans.
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- Compagno, L. 1999. Systematics and Body Form. Pp. 1-42 in W Hamlett, ed. Sharks, Skates, and Rays. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Hamlett, W. 1999. Male Reproductive System. Pp. 444-470 in W Hamlett, ed. Sharks, Skates, and Rays. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Hamlett, W., T. Koob. 1999. Female Reproductive System. Pp. 398-443 in W Hamlett, ed. Sharks, Skates, and Rays. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Froese, R., D. Pauly, D. Woodland. 2003. "Fish Base" (On-line). FishBase World Wide Web electronic publication. Accessed December 09, 2003 at http://www.fishbase.org/.
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