Three predator species are known for yellow baboons. The predation rate varies by population, and is estimated at between 4 and 8 percent per year. Of those who fall victim to predation, about 40% are infants, 30% are juveniles, and 13% are adult females. The remainder are adult males.
Although yellow baboons typically flee when faced with a potential predator, they have also been reported to respond aggressively to potential predators. They have been observed killing domestic dogs, mobbing smaller carnivores, such as jackals and cheetahs, and have even fought leopards and lions.
There may be a relationship between where in the troop different age or sex classes of baboons travel as it relates to risk of death from predators. However, research on this matter has been largely equivocal.