Ozotoceros bezoarticus occurred in great numbers, especially on the pampas of Argentina and Uruguay. Numbers declined rapidly through loss of habitat, transmission of disease from domestic livestock, and continued uncontrolled hunting. The pampas deer is on Appendix 1 of CITES and is designated an endangered species by the IUCN. Jackson (1987), Groombridge (1993).
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: near threatened