O. leucoryx is also classified as endangered by the USDI.
The last known individuals in the wild were killed in 1972, and there are unconfirmed reports from as late as 1979. However, in the 1950's efforts were made in several Arabian countries to establish captive herds. In 1962, some Arabian oryx were taken from the wild and were brought to the U.S. These animals served as the foundation of an international breeding effort and for reintroductions into the wild in Oman in 1982, Jordan in 1983, and central Saudi Arabia in 1990. There are now approximately 500 individuals in the wild, 300 in captivity on the Arabian Peninsula, and 2,000 held elsewhere (such as the Phoenix and San Diego zoos). Despite the former severe reduction of the species, its current genetic variability is considered normal (Nowak, 1999; Wilson and Reeder, 1993; Burton, 1987).
US Federal List: endangered
CITES: appendix i
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered