For young Chinook Salmon, predation is very high. Many species eat the fry and smolts, including striped bass, American shad, sculpins and sea gulls. Reaching adulthood does not release them from predation, however, as they are still prey to many animals when they return to spawn. Most common are bears, orcas, sea lions, seals, otters, eagles, terns and cormorants. People have made predation worse by concentrating adult salmon at dams and weirs (Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission, 1996; National Wildlife Federation, 2002; NOAA, 2001; University of California at Berkeley).
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