In the Great Lakes, sea lampreys are the most common predators of all salmonid species, including rainbow trout. Other predators in both native and introduced habitats include: larger trout, fish-eating birds like great blue herons (Ardea herodias), mergansers (Mergus), and kingfishers (Ceryle), and mammals including mink (Neovison vison and Mustela lutreola), raccoons (Procyon lotor), river otters (Lontra), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), American black bears (Ursus americanus), humans, and larger marine mammals who feed on migrating steelhead. Rainbow trout tend to stick to the sides of streams and rivers where shading is prevalent, the water is less swift, and protection is greatest. Trout species are vigilant and capable of rapid swimming to escape predation.
- kingfishers (Ceryle)
- grizzly bears (Ursus arctos)
- American black bears (Ursus americanus)
- river otters (Lontra canadensis)
- mink (Neovison vison and Mustela lutreola)
- raccoons (Procyon lotor)
- sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus)
- mergansers (Mergus merganser)
- great blue herons (Ardea herodias)
- other trout species (Salmonidae)
- humans (Homo sapien)
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