Onchocerca volvulus has a complex life cycle involving a definitive and intermediate host. The only natural definitive host is humans. The intermediate host is a blackfly in the genus Simulium. Common blackfly hosts include Similium damnosum and S. neavei in Africa and S. ochraceum, S. metallicum, S. callidum, and S. exiguum in the Americas.
Ecosystem Impact: parasite
Species Used as Host: