European bee-eaters are mid-sized insectivores that have dark, thick, and slightly downward curved bills. A bright yellow chin and throat patch meet a blue chest that extends down to the flanks and belly. Dark lores and eye-stripe are contrasted by a white patch above the upper mandible and lower white eye-stripe extending from the lower mandible. A dark chestnut color covers the crown and nape, becoming lighter in color on the back. Upper tail coverts are variable, ranging from green to blue, with most of the tail being blue. Wing lengths average 44 cm for males and 49 cm for females. Weights of European bee-eaters are similar in males and females and range from 44 to 78 g. Total body length ranges from 27 to 30 cm.
Males and females, very similar in coloration, can be distinguished by the hue of the greater coverts, being a chestnut in males and greenish-blue in females, and by the median coverts, where males are a chestnut and females have a greenish hue. Juveniles can be distinguished from adults by the color of the iris. In mature adults the iris is a vibrant red and juveniles will have a grayish-olive-red color. Also, the chestnut color found in adults is only green in juveniles.
Range mass: 44 to 78 g.
Average mass: 52 g.
Range length: 27 to 30 cm.
Average length: 28 cm.
Range wingspan: 44 to 49 cm.
Average wingspan: 46 cm.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike
- Lessells, C., G. Ovenden. 1989. Heritability of Wing Length and Weight in European Bee-Eaters (Merops apiaster). The Condor, 91/1: 210-214.