Predation is a significant source of mortality for many mammals. Except for those few species that are top predators, mammals are preyed upon by many other organisms, including other mammals. Other groups that typically eat mammals are predatory birds and reptiles. Many species cope with predation through avoidance strategies such as cryptic coloration, by restricting foraging to times when predators may not be abundant, or through their sociality. Some mammals also have defensive chemicals (e.g., skunks) or bear some type of protective armor or physical defense (e.g., armadillos, pangolins, New World porcupines and Old World porcupines).
Anti-predator Adaptations: aposematic ; cryptic
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