Japanese macaques have a variety of predators, including avian birds such as mountain hawk-eagles. Feral dogs frequently attacked and killed Japanese macaques, though they are now rare as populations of dogs are now regulated by the Japanese government. Japanese wolves also preyed on this species, although this subspecies of wolves went extinct in the early 1900s. Raccoon dogs may also prey on Japanese macaques. The most lethal predator of Japanese macaques is humans. Because they are considered agricultural pests, more than 10,000 Japanese macaques have been killed since 1998. When a predator is spotted, Japanese macaques make a hollering vocalization to warm others in the group. Japanese macaques have also been observed hollering when Japanese giant flying squirrels glide above them. This may be out of fear, as they may look like other avian predators.
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