Communication and Perception
Japanese macaques are social primates and often vocalize within their troop and with related species. There are six groups of vocalizations used by Japanese macaques, including peaceful, defensive, aggressive, and warning vocalizations, which signal their mood. Other vocalizations include those that occur during female estrus and during infancy. More than 50% of vocalizations are peaceful or soothing in nature. Japanese macaques also make body gestures and facial expressions. In captivity during certain threatening situations, they display different facial expressions, including ear-flattening, opening their mouth to display teeth, raising their eyebrows, and even erecting their ears. Subordinate individuals also grimace, lip-smack, display their hindquarters and practice gaze-avoidance. Display behaviors are also common in Japanese macaques, with several different postures such as kicking, shaking, and leaping. These expressions increase in frequency in males during mating season, but they do not increase in females.
Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic
Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic