Reproductive behavior and specific mating rituals are limited to the act of congregating on the bottom of the sea before fertilization. For reproduction, members of Loligo have fused, unpaired gonads located at the posterior ends of their bodies. Specialized glands of the female provide substances for egg coverings and open into the mantle cavity. This species collects in large numbers on the ocean bottom and produces huge masses of gelatinous spawn. The spawn are attached to solid objects on the ocean bottom.
Male squid gather sperm into a spermatophore carried on a specialized tentacle, called a hectocotylus. This tentacle is used to transfer the spermatophore to the female's mantle cavity, and is possibly broken off there. The anterior portion of the spermatophore has a gelatinous substance that discharges explosively upon contact with the female glandular stucture. The sperm are then released into the mantle cavity to pursue the rather large, yolky eggs.
Mating System: monogamous
Females lay up to 100,000 eggs attached to sea floor substrates. Sexual maturity is reached about one year after hatching. Although it is possible for squid to reproduce more than once, they most often don't because of their limited lifespan.
Breeding interval: Breeding occurs yearly.
Breeding season: Loligo forbesii breed from autumn through spring.
Range number of offspring: 1000 to 100000.
Average number of offspring: 5000-32000.
Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 11 to 14 months.
Range age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 11 to 14 months.
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous
Females provide their eggs richly with yolk. There is no further parental investment.
Parental Investment: pre-fertilization (Provisioning); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female)
- 1967. Squids, cuttlefishes, octopuses. Pp. 93-94 in The Larousse Encyclopedia of Animal Life. London: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
- Banister, K., A. Campbell. 1985. Mollusks. Pp. 255-270 in The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York, NY: Facts of File Publications.
- Grzimek, B. 1972. Mollusks. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 3: Mollusks & Echinoderms. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.