The worm is both an endoparasite of Succinea snails and of various birds such as crows, jays, sparrows and finches. It encounters these animals in temperate forests of North America and Europe. The egg is the only stage of development that exists outside of a host but it must remain moist to survive.
Habitat Regions: terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: forest
Other Habitat Features: agricultural
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