In general, sunfish are an essential intermediate link in the food chain, providing a continuum between higher and lower trophic levels. They are both predators and prey.
- Schaefer, J., W. Lutterschmidt, L. Hill. 1999. Physiological performance and stream microhabitat use by the centrarchids *Lepomis megalotis* and *Lepomis macrochirus*. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 54(3): 303-312.