Within the United States, Latrodectus mactans ranges as far north as Massachusetts and New Hampshire, as far south as Florida, and as far west as California, Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas. The black widow spider also occurs throughout all four deserts of the American southwest. In addition, Latrodectus mactans is found in Canada, Mexico, the West Indies, and South America.
Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )
- Comstock, J. 1948. The Spider Book. Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publishing.
- Emerton, J. 1961. The Common Spiders of the United States. New York: Dover.
- Milne, L., M. Milne. 1990. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..
- Shuttlesworth, D. 1959. The Story of Spiders. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc..
- Smith, R. 1980. Ecology and Field Biology. New York: Harper & Row Publishers.
- Desert USA Magazine, 2004. "Black Widow Spiders" (On-line). Accessed February 28, 2002 at http://www.desertusa.com/july97/du_bwindow.html.
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