Most predation on llamas is by small canids, including coyotes, although pumas and humans were the greatest exploiters of llama populations before the species underwent geographic redistribution throughout the world.
- Stamberg, G., D. Wilson. 1997. "Llamapaedia" (On-line). Accessed February 10, 2004 at http://www.llamapaedia.com/uses/guard.html.
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