Communication and Perception
Llamas will vocalize to warn the herd of predators and to express vexation. Communal feces piles may serve as a specific herd's territorial demarcation, and may function through both visual and scent components. Tactile communication is important between rival males, as well as between mothers and their young. The presence of a submissive position indicates that llamas use body postures as visual signals of dominance.
Communication Channels: visual ; tactile ; acoustic ; chemical
Perception Channels: visual ; acoustic