Hippocampus kuda is strictly a marine species, widely distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific region, from the Indian Ocean to the northwestern, western central, and eastern central areas of the Pacific Ocean ("Project Seahorse", 2003; Foster et al., 2003). Approximately 23 countries have confirmed the native presence of H. kuda, ranging from Australia to China (Lourie et al., 2004). Because spotted seahorses are popular ornamental aquarium fish, their captive distribution has become global (Lally and Hough, 1999).
Biogeographic Regions: indian ocean (Native ); pacific ocean (Native )
- 2003. "The biology of seahorses" (On-line). Project Seahorse. Accessed October 21, 2004 at www.projectseahorse.org.
- Foster, S., A. Marsden, A. Vincent. 2003. "Hippocampus kuda" (On-line). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Accessed October 22, 2004 at http://www.redlist.org/search/details.php?species=10075.
- Lally, K., P. Hough. 1999. Seahorses - A Forgotten Species. Reef Research, 9 (3): 1-2. Accessed November 18, 2004 at http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/corp_site/info_services/publications/reef_research/issue3_99/rr_pg31-32.html.
- Lourie, S., S. Foster, E. Cooper, A. Vincent. 2004. Guide to the Identification of Seahorses. Washington D.C.: University of British Columbia and World Wildlife Fund. Accessed October 14, 2004 at http://www.projectseahorse.org/.