Pygmy hippos are classified as Endangered by the IUCN and are on Appendix II of CITES. Threats to H. liberiensis populations include deforestation, hunting, agricultural land development, and civil conflicts. Pygmy hippos are legally protected in most of the regions where they are found. However, there are little or no resources available to enforce their protection and numbers in the wild continue to decrease. The subspecies H. l. heslopi is considered extinct in the wild, although its existence is still questioned because reports of individuals in Nigeria are questionable.
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: appendix ii
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: endangered