Threespine sticklebacks have many predators and are thus an important source of food for many different animals. They also act as predators for benthic invertebrates, such as amphipods and insect larvae.
- tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus)
- Ward, A., A. Duff, J. Krause, I. Barber. 2005. Shoaling behaviour of sticklebacks infected with the microsporidian parasite, Glugea anomala. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 72/2: 155-160.
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