Communication and Perception
Threespine sticklebacks rely on visual cues for mating behavior. Females tend to be attracted to more reddish coloring of males during mating seasons. They also use olfactory signals to detect the presence of conspecifics, prey, and predators. Like many other fish, threespine sticklebacks use alarm cues to avoid predation and sex pheromones during breeding. Lab-raised sticklebacks have been found to rely heavily on olfactory cues of kinship, habitat and diet, and shoal size. However, the sensory organs and pathways utilized in this communication are not well understood.
Communication Channels: visual ; chemical
Other Communication Modes: pheromones
Perception Channels: visual