Northern fulmars are preyed on by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus) at breeding colonies. Other introduced predators include ground squirrels (Spermophilus) and rats (Rattus norvegicus). Northern fulmars are not susceptible to these terrestrial predators, except at breeding colonies. They will spit a foul smelling oil at predators when threatened.
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