Relatively little information is available about the mating system of Falco biarmicus. Falco biarmicus is monogamous; both males and females engage in elaborate flying and loud crying as part of the courtship display.
Mating System: monogamous
The breeding season for Falcon biarmicus varies significantly throughout its range. In southern Europe and northern Africa, the laying period is February through May. In the Sahara, western and northeastern Africa, the laying period is from January through March. In east, central and south Africa, the laying period is from June through November. Nesting habitat also varies; typical sites include abandoned raptor or heron nests, in trees, cliff faces, on the ground (desert areas) and buildings. A brood typically includes 3 to 4 eggs with an incubation period of around 32 days, fledging occurs in 35 to 47 days.
Breeding season: Breeding season varies significantly throughout the range.
Range eggs per season: 3 to 4.
Average time to hatching: 32 days.
Range fledging age: 35 to 47 days.
Average time to independence: 3 months.
Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); fertilization
There is little information about parental investment in Falco biarmicus. Eggs are incubated for around 32 days, and chicks fledge in 35 to 47 days. The male hunts alone early on, but the female assists in hunting later in the nesting season and during the fledgling period. Both the male and female take turns incubating the eggs.
Parental Investment: no parental involvement; altricial ; pre-hatching/birth (Protecting: Male, Female); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female); pre-independence (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)
- del Hoyo, J., A. Elliott, J. Sargatal. 1994. Lanner Falcon. Pp. 273 in Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 2, 1st Edition. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 1994.
- The Central Pets Educational Foundation. 2003. "Falcon - Lanner" (On-line). Centralpets.com. Accessed April 21, 2004 at http://www.centralpets.com/phpscripts/PrintFriendly.php?AnimalNumber=3011.
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