Known predators include hawks (family Accipitridae), falcons (family Falconidae), owls (family Strigidae) and numerous mammals (class Mammalia, including house cats (Felis silvestris), raccoons (Procyon lotor), foxes (family Canidae) and weasels (family Mustelidae)). Sparrows and buntings often forage near cover so they can flee if a predator approaches. They also forage in flocks, a behavior that allows for increased vigilance and reduces the chance that any one bird will be caught. As with almost all ground nesting birds, nest predation is common among Emberizids.
- birdnature.com, 2002. "Predators to Birds" (On-line). Accessed February 10, 2004 at http://www.birdnature.com/predators.html.