Communication and Perception
Female Emberizids rarely sing. Males sing to attract females and to defend territories against other males. Some species have simple songs (chip notes linked together) and others have more complex or melodic songs. Males often sing from prominent perches within their territories, some also sing while in flight. Male and female pairs often have a call that they use to communicate with each other and with their offspring. Emberizids also give alarm calls when threatened.
Communication Channels: acoustic