Although rays can grow very large, they are still preyed upon by other large fishes, especially sharks. Stingray spines have been found embedded in the mouths of many sharks. The great hammerhead Sphyrna lewini, in particular, appears to specialize in eating stingrays. It uses its hammer head to knock a ray to the bottom, and then pins the ray, once again with its head, pivoting around to bite the ray’s disc until the ray succumbs and can be eaten. In addition to their defensive venomous sting, most stingrays have drab coloring that blends in with the sand or mud bottom. The color of Dasyatis americana, for example, varies depending on the color of the surface on which it lies.
- sharks (Chondrichthyes)
Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic
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