The Japanese Quail is similar in appearance to the European Common Quail, Coturnix coturnix. Overall, they are dark brown with buff mottling above and lighter brown underneath. They have a whitish stripe above the eye on the side of the head. Legs are orangish-gray to pinkish-gray as is the beak (Hoffmann 1988). In contrast to the males, females usually (but not always) lack the rufous coloring on the breast and black flecking or markings on the throat (Johnsgard 1988).
There are variations in plumage color. Some birds are whitish to buff with rufous to chestnut mottling above. Others have a very dark brown appearance with little to no mottling. In addition, there have been golden-brown varieties bred in captivity (Hoffmann 1988).
Wing sizes in males and females is similar ranging from 92 to 101 mm. Both male and female have similar sized tails ranging from 35-49 mm in length (Johnsgard 1988).
Average mass: 90 g.
Average mass: 115 g.