Long-tailed ducks are important predators of crustaceans, mollusks, marine invertebrates and small fish in holarctic regions. Long-tailed ducks are also a significant food source for avian predators, such as gulls and jaegers, and terrestrial predators, such as roving dogs and foxes. They are vulnerable to diseases including recorded cases of avian botulism, avian influenza and avian cholera. Few studies have investigated parasitic, commensal or mutualistic relationships of long-tailed ducks.
- North, N., S. Lair. 2006. Movements of Long-tailed Ducks wintering on Lake Ontario to breeding areas in Nanavut, Canada. Wilson Journal of Ornithology, 118/4: 494-501.
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