Cervids are widely distributed and are native to all continents except Australia, Antarctica, and most of Africa, which contains only a single sub-species of native deer, Barbary red deer. Cervids have been introduced nearly worldwide and there are now 6 introduced species of deer in Australia and New Zealand that have been established since the mid 1800s.
Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native ); ethiopian (Native ); neotropical (Native ); australian (Introduced ); oceanic islands (Introduced )
- Bauer, E. 1985. Mule Deer: Behavior, Ecology, Conservation. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press.