Communication and Perception
Like most vultures, turkey vultures lack complexity in vocalizations. Most vocalizations are grunts, hisses, and barking sounds, used mainly for predator deterrence. Visual cues are used in mating rituals and may be used in other forms of communication.
Turkey vultures have a well-developed sense of smell and are one of the only species of birds worldwide that uses smell extensively. They use their keen sense of smell and their vision to locate carcasses. Black vultures take advantage of this, following turkey vultures to carcasses and then excluding them.
Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic