Golden jackals live in mated pairs and are strictly monogamous. In most jackal families, there are one or two adult members called "helpers." Helpers are jackals who stay with the parents for a year after reaching sexual maturity, without breeding, to help take care of the next litter.
Mating System: monogamous ; cooperative breeder
Births occur mainly in January-February in East Africa and in April-May in Southeast Europe, but take place throughout the year in tropical Asia. Golden jackals of the Serengeti court at the end of the dry season and produce pups during the rainy season. They have been observed to produce pups for at least eight years. The gestation period is 63 days. Young are born in a den within the parents' marked territory. Litters can contain one to nine pups, but two to four is the usual number. Weight at birth is 200-250 grams. Pups' eyes open after about ten days. The pups are nursed for about eight weeks, and then weaned. The young are fed by regurgitation and begin to take some solid food at about three months. Both parents provide food and protection. Sexual maturity comes at eleven months.
Range number of offspring: 1 to 9.
Average number of offspring: 4.5.
Range gestation period: 60 to 63 days.
Range weaning age: 50 to 90 days.
Average birth mass: 207.5 g.
Average number of offspring: 3.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male)
Sex: male: 334 days.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 334 days.
Parental Investment: altricial ; post-independence association with parents; extended period of juvenile learning