Bovids first evolved as grassland species, and most extant species are open grassland inhabitants. Bovid species richness is highest in the savannah of east Africa and the family has radiated to fill an enormous variety of ecological niches resulting in a wide range modifications to dental and limb morphology. For example, Bohor reedbuck and lechwe inhabit riparian and swampy landscape; springbok and oryx are found in deserts; bongo and anoa occupy dense forests; mountain goats and takin reside at high elevations; and musk ox are restricted to arctic tundra.
Numerous bovid species have been domesticated by humans. Goats and sheep were domesticated for subsistence purposes around 10 thousand years ago (KYA) in the near east, followed by the domestication of cattle around 7.5 KYA. While wild relatives of goats and sheep can still be found in their native habitat, the wild ancestors of domesticated cattle, aurochs, have been extinct in the wild for nearly 300 years. Currently, domesticated aurochs are kept on farms and as pets throughout parts of Eurasia.
Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; polar ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: tundra ; taiga ; desert or dune ; savanna or grassland ; chaparral ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest ; mountains
Wetlands: marsh ; swamp
Other Habitat Features: urban ; suburban ; agricultural ; riparian