Hirola populations suffered two drastic declines during 1976-1978 and then in 1995. In 1976-1978 the population declined from 14,000 individuals to about 2,000 for unknown reasons. The second decline saw the population decrease from ~2,000 to 300, this decline was attributed to hunting by poachers, competition with cattle, and loss of habitat due to human encroachment. The natural habitat of hirola occurs in southwestern Somalia and southeastern Kenya, though the Somalian population is thought to be extinct or only occuring in small patchy groups. Hirola are considered one of the world's rarest species.
Conservation efforts have been underway for this species since 1963 when they were reported to be threatened. A small population was relocated in Tsavo East National Park and placed under protection by the park. By 1996 the population had reached 56 individuals. That same year, 35 more individuals were relocated to the park from Kenya in the operation "Hirola Now or Never" to increase the genetic diversity of the park population.
Efforts are being made to study the wild populations and to immplement community programs to educate local people about this species and how to help conserve it.
(Solomon Kyalo, pers. comm.)
US Migratory Bird Act: no special status
US Federal List: no special status
CITES: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: critically endangered