Females are able to have offspring by their fifth year (Reidman, 1990, Trillmich, 1984). Pupping takes place in the cool season beginning in August and lasting until November. Gestation is approximately one year, however, the existence of delayed implantation in this species implies that development time may be less than one year (Nowak, 1999; Reidman, 1990). Bowen (1991) states that the unusual birth time in this species is due to "distribution at low latitudes, a more favourable climate throughout the year, and less pronounced seasonal variation in marine productivity than found in temperate and arctic waters. Females go into estrus 8 days after giving birth, and mate during lactation (Nowak, 1999; Reidman, 1990), which lasts from 365-730 days (Bowen, 1991; Reidman). Peak mating time is during the month of October (Reidman, 1990: Trillmich, 1984). If a female gives birth to another pup the next year, it has a 50% chance of survival. The year old pup may kill the new pup or lack of resources may result in their starvation (Nowak, 1999). Female southern fur seals produce a maximium of 5 offspring in their lifetime (Nowak, 1999).
Average birth mass: 3500 g.
Average gestation period: 213 days.
Average number of offspring: 1.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female)
Sex: female: 1461 days.
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