Antarctic giant petrels (Macronectes giganteus) and Antarctic skuas (Stercorarius maccormicki) are the primary predators of chicks in colonies, taking from 7 to 34% of young. Leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx) take young when they enter the sea after moulting and adults (0.5% of breeding population during November and December in one study). Adults are also taken by killer whales (Orca orcinus). Little is known about specific anti-predatory adaptations, although emperor penguins probably use their speed and agility in the water to escape some predation and may be warned of predators by group members.
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