Communication and Perception
Emperor penguins use a complex set of vocalizations that are critical in individual recognition between mates and parents and offspring. Their calls are known for using two frequency bands simultaneously, a "two-voice" system. Aside from the mate attraction and recognition calls described above, emperor penguins use contact calls to maintain contact with conspecifics during feeding or travel. Chicks use a frequency-modulated whistle to beg for food and to contact a parent. Physical displays are also used to communicate among conspecifics. An appeasement posture, where the flippers are held slightly out and the bill is raised, is used to avoid aggression when moving through the colony. It is unknown how emperor penguins perceive prey, as they can dive to depths of 400 to 450 meters in pursuit of prey, depths at which there is little to no light.
Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic
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