Emperor penguins are monogamous during each breeding season. Although most individuals form a new pair bond with a new individual each year, one study found that 14.6% of pairs in one year were re-formed the next year, and 4.9% in the third year. Males arrive at the nesting site shortly before females and begin to display to attract females. There is an unequal sex ratio in emperor penguins, with more females than males (at one site 39.5% males, 60.5% females). This unequal sex ratio leads to intense competition for mates among females. Males use the "ecstatic" display to attract females - in which they stand still, let the head fall to the chest, inhales, gives a courtship call, and holds his position for a few seconds before moving on to another position. Courtship calls are characterized by repeated syllables separated by silent periods, and are performed by both sexes. Calls are highly variable among individuals and serve a critical role in individual recognition.
Mating System: monogamous
Emperor penguins travel to colonial nesting areas in March or early April, when pair formation and breeding occurs. In May or early June a single, large (460 to 470 g) egg is laid and is passed to the male parent for incubation. Females then return to their foraging areas until the end of incubation. All egg laying and hatching is highly synchronous in colonies. Parental protection of eggs and hatchlings is critical, as incubation and brooding occurs during the depths of the Antarctic winter in some of the most severe and frigid conditions on earth. Exposure of eggs and hatchlings to the cold can result in rapid death. Chicks grow rapidly , fledgling at about 50% of adult mass. Most emperor penguins make their first return to the nesting colony at about 4 years old, but age at first breeding is usually 5 to 6 years in males and 5 years in females.
Breeding interval: Emperor penguins breed once yearly, although not all individuals breed each year.
Breeding season: Breeding occurs in March and April.
Range eggs per season: 1 (high) .
Average eggs per season: 1.
Average time to hatching: 64 days.
Average fledging age: 150 days.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (female): 5 years.
Average age at sexual or reproductive maturity (male): 5-6 years.
Key Reproductive Features: seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate)
Males are solely responsible for incubating the eggs, a period of about 64 days. Females invest significant portions of energy into egg laying and leave to forage soon after. When the eggs begin to hatch, females return to take over brooding and feeding of the hatchling. Males can feed the hatchlings with an esophageal secretion for up to 10 days after hatching, if the female hasn't returned. At this point males have been fasting for about 115 days. Males and females then alternate brooding responsibilities with foraging trips for 45 to 50 days after hatching. Males and females regurgitate food for the young from these foraging trips. As the chicks grow the frequency of foraging trips by both parents increases, as the area of open water comes closer to the colony during the Antarctic summer. Young emperor penguins then form large creches of chicks until they leave the nesting area, at about 150 days old, in December or early January. At this point they have been abandoned by their parents and have not begun yet to moult their downy feathers. By the time they reach open water foraging areas they have nearly completed their moult.
Parental Investment: altricial ; pre-fertilization (Provisioning, Protecting: Female); pre-hatching/birth (Provisioning: Female, Protecting: Male); pre-weaning/fledging (Provisioning: Male, Female, Protecting: Male, Female)
- Williams, T. 1995. The Penguins. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
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