Black noddies are considered a species of least concern by the IUCN. Nesting populations are apparently mostly stable and population estimates are from 1 to 1.5 million. Humans and introduced mammalian predators have driven some populations to extinction. Human degradation of habitats is a serious threat to nesting and roosting colonies, as nesting trees are cleared. Introduced rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), goats (Capra hircus), and scale insects (Parasaissetia nigra) have seriously degraded native vegetation on many tropical islands. Black noddies seem to tolerate human presence well, if nesting, roosting, and foraging habitats are not degraded. Adults are reluctant to leave nests when approached and can easily be taken in hand when incubating or brooding.
Many black noddy nesting islands are protected and human hunting is illegal in most areas. But laws and their enforcement vary considerably across the black noddy range.
US Migratory Bird Act: protected
US Federal List: no special status
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern