European eels are preyed upon by larger eels and other fish and fish-consuming birds, such as cormorants (Phalacrocorax) and herons (Ardeidae) (Deelder, 1970). One defense mechanism employed by eels is that they hide under rocks and burrow in the sand, thus avoiding their predators. The coloring of eels at various life stagies (i.e. the transparency of leptocephali, the dark grey to green color of adults, etc.) also serves as camouflage.
Anti-predator Adaptations: cryptic
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